CIHM Microfiche Series (l\Aonographs) ICIVIH Collection de microfiches (monographles) Canadian Institute for Historical IMicroraproductions / Institut Canadian da microraproductions historiquas 1996 Technical and Bibliographic Notes / Notes technique et bibliographiques The Institute has attempted to obtain the best original copy available for filming. Features of this copy which may be b[bliographically unique, which may alter any of the images in the reproduction, or which may significantly change the usual method of filming are checked below. 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Original copiaa in printad papar covars ara fllmad baginning with tha front covar and anding on tha laat paga with a printad or illuatratad impraa- sion. or tha back covar whan appropriau All othar original copiaa ara filmad baginmng on tha firat paga with a printad or illuatratad impraa- sion. and anding on tha laat paga with a printad or illuatratad impraaaion. Tha last racordad frama on aach microfieha shall conuin tha symbol -n» Imaaning "COfJI- TINUED"). or tha symbol ▼ Imaaning "END I. whichavar appliaa. Maps, platas. charts, ate. may ba filmad at diHarant raduction ratios. Thosa too larga to ba antiraly includad in ona amposura ara filmad baginning in tha uppar laft hand eornar. laft to right and top to bottom, as many framas aa roquirad. Tha following diagrams illustrata tha mathed: Laa axamplairaa originaux dont la couvanura an papiar aat Imprimaa sont H\m*» an commancant par la pramiar plat at an tarminani soit par la darni*ra paga qui comporta una amprainia d'imprassion ou d'illustration. soit par la lacond plat, salon la caa. Toua laa auiras axamplairas originaux sont fllmaa an commandant par la pramiAra paga qui comporta una amprainta d'impraaaion ou d'illuatration at an tarminant par la darniira page qui comporta una talla amprainta. Un daa symbolaa suivants apparaitra sur la darni*ra imaga da chaqua microfieha. salon la cas: la symbola — » signifia "A SUIVRE", la symbola V signifia "FIN". Las cartas, planchaa, ubiaaux. ate. pauvant aira filmto 1 daa Uux da reduction diff*rants. Lorsqua la documant ast trop grand pour aita raproduit an un saul clich*. il asi film* * panir da I'angla supariaur gaucha. da gaucha * droita. at da haut an baa. •n pranant la nombra d'imaga* n*caa**ira. La* diagrammaa suivania illuatrant la matheda. 1 2 3 1 2 3 456 MICBOCOPY RESOLUTION TIST CHART lANSI ond ISO TEST CHART No. 2) I.I 1^25 ji 1.4 : iiiiiM ■ Ilia 1.8 ^liilU^ ^ -^jPPUEDJVMGE >. r> On Wire Ropes. By W. I). 1,. llAKi.m, M.l'., I.elhliriiiKe, Alta. That wire rope as a mechanical means of cheaply conveying coal IS being superceded by electricity and comijrcssed air is not admitted by many mining engineers. After many years of careful study of lb-.' three systems ano closely watching the actual application of the •. all, we are fully convinced that wire rope haulage will live on after some of the new fangled systems have settled down to their proper sphere. That compressed air and electricity have many advantages in some respects, it is not our purpose to controvert, but that wire rope haulage actuated by steam, electricity or compressed air has a wider field than either the compressed air or electrical locomotive is our contention. If this be admitted as correct and, whether or no, it certainly is the duty of all mining engineers and colliery managers to have as complete a knowledge about wire ropes as is possible in one having so many diversified duties to p'-rform, so that he will not be entirely at the mercy of the rope manufacturer who has his little " trick of trades " in common with most other manufacturers. It is the writer's intention in this short |iaper to give some practical and theoretical notes on wire ropes, not claiming any originality, in the hope that they may be beneficial to the younger members of the profession. Wire ropes for mine use are generally composed of : (i). Six wire strands composed of s»ven wires each, twisted on a hemp centre. 1 ne centre wire of the st' Mid sometimes being soft. (2). Six wire strands composed of twelve wires each, twisted on a hemp centre. (3). Six wire strands, composed of nineteen wires each, twisted on a hemp centre. This construction is sometimes varied so that there are 13 larger wires and 6 smaller wires in each strand, but the general construction of the rope is the same. \.. ' The Canaiiian Mining Imtilute. The ratios of the diameter of the individual wires to the diameter of the rope in these three cases, not including the rope with two sized wires as in No. 3, are as follows : (,) ., (,, ;^., (3, ,,.. prom this, the gauge of wire required to conFtitute a rope can readily be got to a close apiiroximaiion. No. I is only used where large wheel drums and easy curves can be employed. Such a condition does not very often present itself in coal mines. The No. .. rope is a more pliable one and can be used on smaller drums, wheels, and curves, Imt when we remember that the size of tlie individual .vires govern the si/e of wheel it will be seen that with this rope, with a heavy load, such as is usual in mine haulage, the wheels would be relatively large. \ wire shouM not be bent over a wheel less than .,000 times i;s diameter for good lesulis in length of life and tons hauled. Excepting in ropes of large diameter No. 3 is not used for mine haulage but is largely em])loyed for hoisting ropes. To meet the conditions of severe bending usual in the underground working of collieries the British manufacturers construct a compound rope which we will designate as (4) : (4). Six wire strands, each composed of 9 large wires twisted around 7 smaller wires (the centre or seventh wire being soft), twisted round a hemp centre. The gauges of wire used and number of wires used in the construction of a compound rope are varied to suit the circumstances. These ropes are very servicable and meet the mine manager's wants with a wonderful degree of satisfaction. I am not aware that any American rope makers are constructing ropes of this style. In computing me strength of any twisted wire rope it is well to remember that the strength of each individual wire is reduced from 4 per cent, to ,0 per cent, by twisting. The makers claim the strength IS reduced 4 per cent, while disinterested experimenters claim the strength is reduced .0 per cent. Perh.aps a fair allowable reduction of strength for twisting in manufacturing, would be the average of the two, viz : 7 per cent. Iron wire rope.5 are not suitable jr mining purposes and are not considered in this paper. 911960 ■♦■ Tsss^^ srsn"*"*"- Oil IViir Kofes. t> There is a very wide ranfje in the grades of steel ropes and as tlie breaking strengtii per s(|iiare inch of section of ihe material of ivhicli they are constructed is fundamenial, we herewith give a short tahle which will make the point clear. r<l oi Cnii-il.lc Slul. Tons. ■r.iii. tmiis r,,!!,. ]■,, The ipiality here is in tons of 2,240 lbs. per square inch of section. The composition that enters into these grades is partly a secret of the manufacturer, however, a vast amount of information has been published but the articles are too numerous and conllicling to he brought within the limits of this paper. For the purpose of making the above tables clear let us take an example: -Suppo.se we are going to use a crucible steel rope is-ifi inch diameter, or 3 inches circumference, composed of six strands, each strand having 9 wires .080 inch diameter, twisted over 7 wires .054 inch diameter, of 201,600 lbs. breaking strain per square inch, what is the breaking strain of the rope .^— .082 in. X .7,854 .\ 201,600 lbs.= 1008" X9 wires. 9,.)72 lbs. .0542 in, X .7,854 X 201,600 lb5.= 4fii.7'-x6*wire.5. 2,77olbs. St rengi; of one strand 1 ,,,S42 Ihs. 6 11,842 lbs. X 6 strands ■> 1,052 lbs. Less 7 per cent, allowed for twisting 7,105 lbs. Breaking strain of rope 63,947165. t The safe working load in underground haulage may be from 1.7 to 1-5 say 1-6 10,658 lbs. * Six of the seven small wires only enter into this calculation as the seventh wire is the core of the strand and is soft having little tensile strength. Thf Oinadian AfiiiiHg Imlilule. t A rope running at a low speed and no lives depending upon it, is not subject to the sudden strains ol' a high speed rope and may have a very low nicior of safely. In slow endless rope haulage i-j miles per hour, we iliink, •; is a safe factor. Hut with fast running tail-ropes 7 is not toil ,irge. For hoisting ropes the safe factor should be 10. The following we regard is a good sample of a specification for wire rope : — Qiiiirv iif mir.—i. All steel used in ihe manufacture of the cable shall be of 1 he "best scleclcd i)atent in-iiroved crucible steel" drawn to a uniform diameter throughout, and ■:a,,..ble of withstanding the lists tncntioned in the table given bcljw. r.iiij;l/i, in,' anu'/orm 0/ H^'h,- 2. The c.ule shall be feet long ..id shall have a circumference of 35 a inches (three and five eighths) when finished. It shall consist of six outside strands laid u]) in the formation known a^ the '■ Lang lay," with Ihe lay in the rojie in the same direction as the lay in the strat.Js. Stiaiidi. — T,. Each strand shall he composed of seven wires .115 mch in diameter, laid round a core consisting of five wires .061 inch in diameter round one wire .049 inch diameter. Spinning.— ^. Kacli strand shall be spun in feet lengths and evenly woimd ilirect from the machine on to a reel. When it is necessary to join either tne outside or inside wires they sh.all be pro- perly scarfed and brazed. Chsing.—^. The si.x strands shall be closed under i.iiform tension round a heart consisting of the best white manilla rop», having three strands, hard laid, and well soaked in oil. l,iy.—6. The lay of the wires in the strands shall le 53,| inches (three and three-quarters) .ind the l.iy of -he strands in the cable y'/, inches (nine and one half). I On IVire Kcfrt. f TABLKS OF TKSTS- 7. TKNSII.K IHST. T)i;mteter of wire. iisidch. .061 *■ .049 " UiiKthof let, T*-"!*'!* l«t. i piece betwreii , Streai gauge itiark*. Mr*M per per wire, •quare inch. H inchei . H " 90 lotlH 85 •• >,<i94 Iba. 55« " 359 ■• Here Ihe core wire of the slrand is not soft as in the case we made the calculation for. Ul'CTtl.K TKST. Lingth of tMt, piece between gauge marks. K inches. 8 " 8 •■ Nui.iber of twista. 25 number. 45 5S " B^nds to IS<)° over o-*e-nuarter inch radiua. ^ nunibei. 6 radi Hank to be siiUfclcd to t,-sl.—%. Uefore proceeding with the manuacture of tne cable, the contractor shall submit every ha nl. of wire to the engineer, who wii: make tensile and ductile tests from each end of the hank before it is worked into the cable. ya,i,itim from sptcified trsls.—g. Kvery hank wiiich shall be found to vary more than 2'/, |,er cent, in either direction from the tensile tests specified above, or more than 8 per cent, below the specified number of twists in 8 inches will be rejected. Test of Call/,:— to. The contrac'or shall make the cable suffi- ciently long to allow for cutting off a suitable portion which shall be lested for tei sile strength in the jiresence of the engineer, or his repre- sentative, and must withstand a load of 4.? tons (ton here is 2,240 lbs.) without breaking. Costof making tests.— II. The cost of all tesis, whether made at the contracto '- »n-ks or elsewhere, shall be borne by the contractor. iHe Omadian Mining Institute, Otrmi^^ii t.it\.—\2 In addition to (he aliovc, rhcmicil tcstH may iif made at ihu liHcretion oj the engineer. Curliori Silicon Mimganciit- . liiosphoniH . Sulphur t nitir wire. Inner wire. Coie wire. MS in. <lititii. .nfi in. diam. .(i.l<) In. Hiani 5" .11*) " • S" Of, ■■ • 5" .,Vi " ."4.1 '■ .JO " .,S" " "4.1 ■' .04.1 •■ "Manganese imparls loiiijiincss and nculraiiscs •■shorlness," it furlhcr acts in favor of il.c presence and functions of the carlmn." Silicon can only Iw tolerated in very limited riuantities, wliilst jihos- phorus and sulphur are the greatest enemies encountered in the manufacture of steel. Any excess of silicon produces brittleness, wliich is more marked as the percentage of carbon is raised. Small ■ luantities of sulphur present in steel will produce unsoundness and "red shortness" whilst phosphorus is detrimental on account of causing " cold shortness " besides being an enemy to any form of tempering and conductivity."— iw/M. In the ordinary construction of wire rojies the wires forming the strands are twisted to the left hand but the strands are tivisted to the right hand, or opposite direction. In die " I.ang lay " the wires form- ing the strands and the strands comprising the rope are all laid in the same direction. Ropes may be laid up "right" or "left" hand and this is no small consideration in the life of a ro|)e if one coil chafes on another. If, when standing behind the drum facing the pit head pulleys, the rope travels on drum from left to right, the rope should be laid "right handed," or vice versa. The tendency 10 mount and side friction are miiiimised. The "lays" adopted in wire rope inaking are principally dependent upon the gauge of the wires em]>loyed, the size of the rope to be made, and the purposes they are intended for. .Approximately it may be saiti that the "lays" in strand, vary about ihree to four times the diameter of the rope and the " lays" in the rope vary from seven to ten times the diameter of the mpe. The average elongation of ordinary constructed ro|)e is about .3 percent, and with "Lang lay" ,'/, percent, to j per cent, which On lliir A'k/vs mint not l« lo.t sight of in hoisting rope> and endless rope. ,\ ,,„,. able tiKhtcning arrangement wii] take up ihf elongation in endless ropes but in hoisting ropes it is a case of pullinj, t .e rope up in the fasten- ings in the drum. With hoistinn rop.i ihe life can be greatly i,„ reased by ordering sufficient length to enable 6-10 feet to be cut off the end periodically and thus change the point of lift or stress. It IS of ih. rsi importance th:it ropes be greased i- . uently and carefully with ., good, pure, grease which is absolutely u.^ rom acids. A greab^' with acids in it is worse ihan no grease. I is obvious where ropes have to bend round wheels, drums, or cf • 's, that the outer fibres of ,„».', win; as they accommodate them selves to the curvature, are in tension, and the inner wiies in com pres-sion, whiL the center or neutral axis is unchanged. As a con- sequence it may be assumed that ihe more Hexible a rope, ,. ,-. offers less resistance in compression and tension in each wire, where it is subjected to much ,inding in work, the belter will be the results, pro- vided that such f bilily be not obtained by the use of such line wires that the wearing capacily of the rope is affected. We said in the early |)art of this paper that a rope should not bend over a wheel less than .,000 ties the diameter of the largest individual wire in the roi>e. This 'niili up on a.suming .S ._ 30.000 from which we have U = .10,000,0c . d = 1,000 d. This only implies, .30,000 afur all, that if 1) is greater than 1.000 d the life of the rope will be greater and ria- :rrsa. A prominent rope-maker in Kngland answers a letter of enquiry from us asking his rule by which to calculate the siie of wheel for a given size of rope as follows :— '• In haulage it is advisable to u.se the larg :si pulleys vou can possibly get in; this however is governed a great deal'by 'the con- ditions under 4vhich you have 10 work, and when we know the sue of the pulleys you are using we can generally suggest to you the class of rope most suitable. There is no rule for this, but it is purely a matter of experience and how ropes have worked under similar conditions in other places." The Canadim, Mimng InUituU. E= Modulus of e;ast/rit» ...i,; u ■ U can U 30.cco,ooo. pounC'r^^.e •„:! ^■■"""^- ^'^ ^'"' ^ -" d — Diameter of a sinele wirp nf .h- D_= Diameter of pu4;~:'''"''^ ■"■-''"■ -^i^e ofThe'lTer;::: '■"^'' '''"^"°" -- -<^ "P™ -^^ oute™„« -^e'rS:^:-::;^J-f-.;''e diameter Of .e outer -e on,, for conveni^ce^eCd -°:8""": ""■""" °' -■- ("ere S ^ JL = 30,000,000 .08 inch ~, "„'"' " = «° '-''"• j^ -uo men -_ 30,000 lbs. .„, 80 inches. ihe cross sectional area nf ih. . ample is:_ * °' ">' '"^ ^'^es of wire in that ex- •35388227 X 30,000 lbs = ,„fi ,; ,u -35388227 The stress produced on ,J, ^^ '""' ''"^ '" lending, ^idered in conne'ction ^W. h h ' ,"::'™ T 1 '"""'"'' ">-' "-- a-ve a. the total stress. iV:;;"''""^''^ ''>^ '-d in order .0 -^a..at.hesum Of these t.o sir iirr:::::;!: 'o.«5^r:;^rnV:^;:tr--we.lo.eda,oad "TiTtJT" 3 + safe factor. On Hire Ropes. bending " lut of the and the ch must = K d^ we will outer : (here hes. con- •r to it is the )ad In the example the factor 6 was allowed to overcome bending stress, sudden jerks, etc. By finding the bending stress we see that factor a of 3 is ample to pnt up for the other possible stresses. .^ threefold security is considered sufficient. Whatever may be the relation of these two stresses, pulling and bending, the total stress on the rope will be that due to the com bination of these two stresses. If D is made so small that the two stresses, pull and bending, are d greater than the clastic limit the rope will receive a permanent set which, however, is not always dangerous. In this connection we might call attention to the baneful effect attending the use of wire ropes where reverse bends are made. Care ful record and e.xperiment have shown that the life of the winding rope which goes over the pit-head pulley and under the drum is only from one-half to three-quarters as great as the rope which goes over the pit- head pulley on to the top of the drum. The importance of greasing ropes is also accentuated by Mr Biggarfs tests. Two lengths of the same size and manufacture of rope were used; the unoiled length made only 16,000 wherea.. the oiled length made 38,700 bends over the same pulley before breaking. Other similar pieces of rope unoiled would run over a 24 inch pulley 74,000 times, and the oiled length 386,000 times. This paper has assumed proporiions we had not intended when undertaking its compilation, and indeed it has been compiled on lines that wc had not intended when commencing it. Such a paj.er as this cannot be considered complete without considering many other im- portant points in wire rope construction, and its use, such as the neutral axis, the proper diameter of sheaves, curves, etc. At some future time we may send in another paper covering these important points.